# Relationships

In addition to the variety of fields we've already discussed, Nova has full support for all of Laravel's relationships. Once you add relationship fields to your Nova resources, you'll start to experience the full power of the Nova dashboard, as the resource detail page will allow you to quickly view and search a resource's related models:

Detail page Relationship

# HasOne

The HasOne field corresponds to a hasOne Eloquent relationship. For example, let's assume a User model hasOne Address model. We may add the relationship to our User Nova resource like so:

use Laravel\Nova\Fields\HasOne;

HasOne::make('Address'),

Like other types of fields, relationship fields will automatically "camel case" the displayable name of the field to determine the underlying relationship method / attribute. However, you may explicitly specify the name of the relationship method by passing it as the second argument to the field's make method:

HasOne::make('Dirección', 'address'),

# HasOneOfMany

The HasOne relationship field can be transformed into an "has one of many" Eloquent relationship using the ofMany method. For example, let's assume a User model hasMany Post models. We may add the "has one of many" relationship to our User Nova resource like so:

use App\Nova\Post;
use Laravel\Nova\Fields\HasOne;

HasOne::ofMany('Latest Post', 'latestPost', Post::class),

# HasMany

The HasMany field corresponds to a hasMany Eloquent relationship. For example, let's assume a User model hasMany Post models. We may add the relationship to our User Nova resource like so:

use Laravel\Nova\Fields\HasMany;

HasMany::make('Posts'),

Once the field has been added to your resource, it will be displayed on the resource's detail page.

Plural Resource Names

When defining HasMany relationships, make sure to use the plural form of the relationship so Nova can infer the correct singular resource name:

HasMany::make('Posts'),

# HasOneThrough

The HasOneThrough field corresponds to a hasOneThrough Eloquent relationship. For example, let's assume a Mechanic model has one Car, and each Car may have one Owner. While the Mechanic and the Owner have no direct connection, the Mechanic can access the Owner through the Car itself. You can display this relationship by adding it to your Nova resource:

use Laravel\Nova\Fields\HasOneThrough;

HasOneThrough::make('Owner'),

# HasManyThrough

The HasManyThrough field corresponds to a hasManyThrough Eloquent relationship. For example, a Country model might have many Post models through an intermediate User model. In this example, you could easily gather all blog posts for a given country. To display this relationship within Nova, you may add it to your Nova resource:

use Laravel\Nova\Fields\HasManyThrough;

HasManyThrough::make('Posts'),

# BelongsTo

The BelongsTo field corresponds to a belongsTo Eloquent relationship. For example, let's assume a Post model belongsTo a User model. We may add the relationship to our Post Nova resource like so:

use Laravel\Nova\Fields\BelongsTo;

BelongsTo::make('User'),

Customizing Resource Classes

You may customize the resource class used by the relation field by providing the second and third arguments of the make method, which define the name of the relationship and the underlying Nova resource class:

BelongsTo::make('Author', 'author', 'App\Nova\User'),

# Nullable Relationships

If you would like your BelongsTo relationship to be nullable, you may simply chain the nullable method onto the field's definition:

use Laravel\Nova\Fields\BelongsTo;

BelongsTo::make('User')->nullable(),

# Title Attributes

When a BelongsTo field is shown on a resource creation / update page, a drop-down selection menu or search menu will display the "title" of the resource. For example, a User resource may use the name attribute as its title. Then, when the resource is shown in a BelongsTo selection menu, that attribute will be displayed:

Belongs To Title

To customize the "title" attribute of a resource, you may define a title property on the resource class:

public static $title = 'name';

Alternatively, you may override the resource's title method:

/**
 * Get the value that should be displayed to represent the resource.
 *
 * @return string
 */
public function title()
{
    return $this->name;
}

# Disable Ordering By Title

By default, associatable resources will be sorted by their title when listed in a select dropdown. Using the dontReorderAssociatables method, you can disable this behavior so that the resources as sorted based on the ordering specified by the relatable query:

BelongsTo::make('User')->dontReorderAssociatables(),

# Filter Trashed Items

By default, the BelongsTo field will allow users to select soft-deleted models; however, this can be disabled using the withoutTrashed method:

BelongsTo::make('User')->withoutTrashed(),

# BelongsToMany

The BelongsToMany field corresponds to a belongsToMany Eloquent relationship. For example, let's assume a User model belongsToMany Role models:

public function roles()
{
    return $this->belongsToMany(Role::class);
}

We may add the relationship to our User Nova resource like so:

use Laravel\Nova\Fields\BelongsToMany;

BelongsToMany::make('Roles'),

You may customize the resource class used by the relationship field by providing the second and third arguments to the make method:

BelongsToMany::make('Pseudonyms', 'pseudonyms', 'App\Nova\Author'),

Once the field has been added to your resource, it will be displayed on the resource's detail page.

# Pivot Fields

If your belongsToMany relationship interacts with additional "pivot" fields that are stored on the intermediate table of the many-to-many relationship, you may also attach those to your BelongsToMany Nova relationship. Once these fields are attached to the relationship field, and the relationship has been defined on both of the related models / resources, they will be displayed on the related resource index.

For example, let's assume our User model belongsToMany Role models. On our role_user intermediate table, let's imagine we have a notes field that contains some simple text notes about the relationship. We can attach this pivot field to the BelongsToMany field using the fields method:

BelongsToMany::make('Roles')
    ->fields(function ($request, $relatedModel) {
        return [
            Text::make('Notes'),
        ];
    }),

Of course, it is likely we would also define this field on the inverse of the relationship. So, if we define the BelongsToMany field on the User resource, we would define its inverse on the Role resource:

BelongsToMany::make('Users')
    ->fields(function ($request, $relatedModel) {
        return [
            Text::make('Notes'),
        ];
    }),

Pivot fields must be defined

Don't forget to define the pivot fields inside your Model's relationship definition using the withPivot method: https://laravel.com/docs/9.x/eloquent-relationships#retrieving-intermediate-table-columns (opens new window)

Since defining the field on both ends of the relationship can cause some code duplication, Nova allows you to pass an invokable object to the fields method:

BelongsToMany::make('Users')->fields(new RoleUserFields),

In this example, the RoleUserFields class would be a simple, invokable class that returns the array of pivot fields:

<?php

namespace App\Nova;

use Laravel\Nova\Fields\Text;

class RoleUserFields
{
    /**
     * Get the pivot fields for the relationship.
     *
     * @param  \Laravel\Nova\Http\Requests\NovaRequest  $request
     * @param  \Illuminate\Database\Eloquent\Model  $relatedModel
     * @return array
     */
    public function __invoke($request, $relatedModel)
    {
        return [
            Text::make('Notes'),
        ];
    }
}

# Pivot Computed Fields

Laravel Nova also allows you to define computed fields within the field list of a belongsToMany relationship field:

BelongsToMany::make('Users')
    ->fields(function ($request, $relatedModel) {
        return [
            Text::make('Notes'),

            Boolean::make('Has Notes', function ($pivot) {
                return ! empty($pivot->notes);
            }),
        ];
    }),

# Pivot Actions

Typically, Nova actions operate on a resource. However, you may also attach actions to belongsToMany fields so that they can operate on pivot / intermediate table records. To accomplish this, you may chain the actions method onto your field's definition:

BelongsToMany::make('Roles')
    ->actions(function () {
        return [
            new Actions\MarkAsActive,
        ];
    }),

Once the action has been attached to the field, you will be able to select the action and execute it from the relationship index on the parent resource's detail page.

Actions

To learn more about Nova actions, check out the complete action documentation.

# Title Attributes

When a BelongsToMany field is shown on a resource creation / update page, a drop-down selection menu or search menu will display the "title" of the resource. For example, a Role resource may use the name attribute as its title. Then, when the resource is shown in a BelongsToMany selection menu, that attribute will be displayed:

Belongs To Many Title

To customize the "title" attribute of a resource, you may define a title property on the resource class:

public static $title = 'name';

Alternatively, you may override the resource's title method:

/**
 * Get the value that should be displayed to represent the resource.
 *
 * @return string
 */
public function title()
{
    return $this->name;
}

# Allowing Duplicate Relations

By default, Laravel Nova ensures that "belongs to many" relationships are unique. However, if necessary, you may instruct Nova to allow duplicate relationship entries.

To get started, you should ensure that your pivot record's id column is available by using the withPivot method when defining the relationship on your Eloquent model. In this example, let's imagine that a User may purchase a Book one or more times:

public function books()
{
    return $this->belongsToMany(Book::class)
                ->using(BookPurchase::class)
                ->withPivot('id', 'notes')
                ->withTimestamps();
}

Next, we can define the Nova relationship that allows duplicate relations using the allowDuplicateRelations method:

BelongsToMany::make('Books')
    ->fields(function () {
        return [
            Text::make('Notes'),
        ];
    })->allowDuplicateRelations(),

# MorphOne

The MorphOne field corresponds to a morphOne Eloquent relationship. For example, let's assume a Post has a one-to-one polymorphic relationship with the Image model. We may add the relationship to our Post Nova resource like so:

use Laravel\Nova\Fields\MorphOne;

MorphOne::make('Image'),

# MorphOneOfMany

The MorphOne relationship field can be transformed into a "morph one of many" Eloquent relationship using the ofMany method. For example, let's assume a Post has a one-to-many polymorphic relationship with the Comment model. We may add the relationship to our Post Nova resource like so:

use App\Nova\Comment;
use Laravel\Nova\Fields\MorphOne;

MorphOne::ofMany('Latest Comment', 'latestComment', Comment::class),

# MorphMany

The MorphMany field corresponds to a morphMany Eloquent relationship. For example, let's assume a Post has a one-to-many polymorphic relationship with the Comment model. We may add the relationship to our Post Nova resource like so:

use Laravel\Nova\Fields\MorphMany;

MorphMany::make('Comments'),

# MorphTo

The MorphTo field corresponds to a morphTo Eloquent relationship. For example, let's assume a Comment model has a polymorphic relationship with both the Post and Video models. We may add the relationship to our Comment Nova resource like so:

use App\Nova\Post;
use App\Nova\Video;
use Laravel\Nova\Fields\MorphTo;

MorphTo::make('Commentable')->types([
    Post::class,
    Video::class,
]),

As you can see in the example above, the types method is used to instruct the MorphTo field what types of resources it may be associated with. Nova will use this information to populate the MorphTo field's type selection menu on the creation and update pages:

Morph To Type

MorphTo Title Attributes

When a MorphTo field is shown on a resource creation / update page, the title attributes of the available resources will automatically be displayed.

# Nullable Relationships

If you would like your MorphTo relationship to be nullable, chain the nullable method onto the field's definition:

use App\Nova\Post;
use App\Nova\Video;
use Laravel\Nova\Fields\MorphTo;

MorphTo::make('Commentable')->types([
    Post::class,
    Video::class,
])->nullable(),

# MorphToMany

The MorphToMany field corresponds to a morphToMany Eloquent relationship. For example, let's assume a Post has a many-to-many polymorphic relationship with the Tag model. We may add the relationship to our Post Nova resource like so:

use Laravel\Nova\Fields\MorphToMany;

MorphToMany::make('Tags'),

# Pivot Fields

If your morphToMany relationship interacts with additional "pivot" fields that are stored on the intermediate table of the many-to-many relationship, you may also attach those to your MorphToMany Nova relationship. Once these fields are attached to the relationship field, they will be displayed on the related resource index.

For example, on our taggables intermediate table, let's imagine we have a notes field that contains some simple text notes about the relationship. We can attach this pivot field to the MorphToMany field using the fields method:

MorphToMany::make('Tags')
    ->fields(function ($request, $relatedModel) {
        return [
            Text::make('Notes'),
        ];
    }),

Of course, it is likely we would also define this field on the inverse of the relationship. So, if we define the MorphToMany field on the Post resource, we would define it's inverse on the Tag resource:

MorphToMany::make('Posts')
    ->fields(function ($request, $relatedModel) {
        return [
            Text::make('Notes'),
        ];
    }),

Pivot fields must be defined

Don't forget to define the pivot fields inside your Model's relationship definition using the withPivot method: https://laravel.com/docs/9.x/eloquent-relationships#retrieving-intermediate-table-columns (opens new window)

Since defining the field on both ends of the relationship can cause some code duplication, Nova allows you to pass an invokable object to the fields method:

MorphToMany::make('Users')->fields(new TaggableFields),

In this example, the TaggableFields class would be a simple, invokable class that returns the array of pivot fields:

<?php

namespace App\Nova;

use Laravel\Nova\Fields\Text;

class TaggableFields
{
    /**
     * Get the pivot fields for the relationship.
     *
     * @param  \Laravel\Nova\Http\Requests\NovaRequest  $request
     * @param  \Illuminate\Database\Eloquent\Model  $relatedModel
     * @return array
     */
    public function __invoke($request, $relatedModel)
    {
        return [
            Text::make('Notes'),
        ];
    }
}

# Title Attributes

When a MorphToMany field is shown on a resource creation / update page, a drop-down selection menu or search menu will display the "title" of the resource. For example, a Tag resource may use the name attribute as its title. Then, when the resource is shown in a MorphToMany selection menu, that attribute will be displayed:

Morph To Many Title

To customize the "title" attribute of a resource, you may define a title property on the resource class:

public static $title = 'name';

Alternatively, you may override the resource's title method:

/**
 * Get the value that should be displayed to represent the resource.
 *
 * @return string
 */
public function title()
{
    return $this->name;
}

# Searchable Relations

By default, when the BelongsTo, MorphTo, and MorphToMany relationship fields are shown on a resource creation / update page, a simple drop-down selection menu will be displayed. However, this can quickly become cumbersome if a resource model has many records. For example, imagine a drop-down selection menu populated with over 10,000 users!

Instead of displaying a drop-down selection menu, you may mark your relationships as searchable. When a relationship is marked as searchable, a beautiful search input control will be displayed instead:

Belongs To Search

To mark a relationship as searchable, chain the searchable method onto the field's definition. If you would like to conditionally determine if a field should be searchable, you may pass a closure to the searchable method:

BelongsTo::make('User')->searchable(),

BelongsTo::make('User')->searchable(function ($request) {
    return true;
}),

You may also instruct the relation field to display the resource's subtitle by invoking the withSubtitles method when defining the field:

BelongsTo::make('User')->searchable()->withSubtitles(),

# Limiting Relation Results

You can limit the number of results that are returned when searching the field by defining a relatableSearchResults property on the class of the resource that you are searching for:

/**
 * The number of results to display when searching for relatable resources without Scout.
 *
 * @var int|null
 */
public static $relatableSearchResults = 200;

# Creating Inline Relations

For convenience, When BelongsTo or MorphTo relationship fields are shown on a resource create or update page, you may create the related resource inline via a modal window without leaving the creation / update page:

Creating Inline Relations

To enable this functionality, invoke the showCreateRelationButton method when defining the relationship field:

BelongsTo::make('User')->showCreateRelationButton(),

You may also pass a closure to the showCreateRelationButton method to conditionally determine if inline resource creation should be enabled:

BelongsTo::make('User')->showCreateRelationButton(function ($request) {
    //
}),

You may also create related many-to-many relationships from the "attach" and "update attached" pages. To enable this feature, invoke the showCreateRelationButton when defining a BelongsToMany or MorphToMany relationship:

BelongsToMany::make('Roles')->showCreateRelationButton(),

To hide the inline creation button, invoke the hideCreateRelationButton method when defining the relationship field:

BelongsTo::make('User')->hideCreateRelationButton(),

The inline relation creation process will respect any authorization policies you have defined.

Inline Creation Limitations

Inline relation creation only supports creating relations one level deep. This means you cannot trigger an additional inline creation modal inside an existing inline creation modal. Instead, you must select a resource that already exists.