# Fields

# Defining Fields

Each Nova resource contains a fields method. This method returns an array of fields, which generally extend the Laravel\Nova\Fields\Field class. Nova ships with a variety of fields out of the box, including fields for text inputs, booleans, dates, file uploads, Markdown, and more.

To add a field to a resource, you may simply add it to the resource's fields method. Typically, fields may be created using their static make method. This method accepts several arguments; however, you usually only need to pass the "human readable" name of the field. Nova will automatically "snake case" this string to determine the underlying database column:

use Laravel\Nova\Fields\ID;
use Laravel\Nova\Fields\Text;

/**
 * Get the fields displayed by the resource.
 *
 * @param  \Laravel\Nova\Http\Requests\NovaRequest  $request
 * @return array
 */
public function fields(NovaRequest $request)
{
    return [
        ID::make()->sortable(),
        Text::make('Name')->sortable(),
    ];
}

# Field Column Conventions

As noted above, Nova will "snake case" the displayable name of the field to determine the underlying database column. However, if necessary, you may pass the column name as the second argument to the field's make method:

Text::make('Name', 'name_column'),

# Showing / Hiding Fields

Often, you will only want to display a field in certain situations. For example, there is typically no need to show a Password field on a resource index listing. Likewise, you may wish to only display a Created At field on the creation / update forms. Nova makes it a breeze to hide / show fields on certain pages.

The following methods may be used to show / hide fields based on the display context:

  • showOnIndex
  • showOnDetail
  • showOnCreating
  • showOnUpdating
  • showOnPreview
  • hideFromIndex
  • hideFromDetail
  • hideWhenCreating
  • hideWhenUpdating
  • onlyOnIndex
  • onlyOnDetail
  • onlyOnForms
  • exceptOnForms

You may chain any of these methods onto your field's definition in order to instruct Nova where the field should be displayed:

Text::make('Name')->hideFromIndex(),

Alternatively, you may pass a callback to the following methods.

  • showOnIndex
  • showOnDetail
  • showOnCreating
  • showOnUpdating
  • hideFromIndex
  • hideFromDetail
  • hideWhenCreating
  • hideWhenUpdating

For show* methods, the field will be displayed if the given callback returns true:

Text::make('Name')->showOnIndex(function (NovaRequest $request, $resource) {
    return $this->name === 'Taylor Otwell';
}),

For hide* methods, the field will be hidden if the given callback returns true:

Text::make('Name')->hideFromIndex(function (NovaRequest $request, $resource) {
    return $this->name === 'Taylor Otwell';
}),

# Resource Preview Modal

You may also define which fields should be included in the resource's "preview" modal. This modal can be displayed for a given resource by the user when viewing the resource's index:

Text::make('Title')->showOnPreview(),

Markdown::make('Content')->showOnPreview(),

Alternatively, you may pass a callback to the showOnPreview method:

Markdown::make('Content')->showOnPreview(function (NovaRequest $request, $resource) {
    return $request->user()->can('previewContent');
}),

Resource Preview

# Dynamic Field Methods

If your application requires it, you may specify a separate list of fields for specific display contexts. For example, imagine you have a resource with the following list of fields:

/**
 * Get the fields displayed by the resource.
 *
 * @param  \Laravel\Nova\Http\Requests\NovaRequest  $request
 * @return array
 */
public function fields(NovaRequest $request)
{
    return [
        Text::make('First Name'),
        Text::make('Last Name'),
        Text::make('Job Title'),
    ];
}

On your detail page, you may wish to show a combined name via a computed field, followed by the job title. In order to do this, you could add a fieldsForDetail method to the resource class which returns a separate list of fields that should only be displayed on the resource's detail page:

/**
 * Get the fields displayed by the resource on detail page.
 *
 * @param  \Laravel\Nova\Http\Requests\NovaRequest  $request
 * @return array
 */
public function fieldsForDetail(NovaRequest $request)
{
    return [
        Text::make('Name', function () {
            return sprintf('%s %s', $this->first_name, $this->last_name);
        }),

        Text::make('Job Title'),
    ];
}

The available methods that may be defined for individual display contexts are:

  • fieldsForIndex
  • fieldsForDetail
  • fieldsForInlineCreate
  • fieldsForCreate
  • fieldsForUpdate

Dynamic Field Methods Precedence ::

The fieldsForIndex, fieldsForDetail, fieldsForInlineCreate, fieldsForCreate, and fieldsForUpdate methods always take precedence over the fields method.

# Default Values

There are times you may wish to provide a default value to your fields. Nova offers this functionality via the default method, which accepts a value or callback. This value will be used as the field's default input value on the resource's creation view:

BelongsTo::make('Name')->default($request->user()->getKey()),

Text::make('Uuid')->default(function ($request) {
    return Str::orderedUuid();
}),

# Field Placeholder Text

By default, the placeholder text of a field will be it's name. You can override the placeholder text of a field that supports placeholders by using the placeholder method:

Text::make('Name')->placeholder('My New Post'),

# Field Hydration

On every create or update request that Nova receives for a given resource, each field's corresponding model attribute will automatically be filled before the model is persisted to the database. If necessary, you may customize the hydration behavior of a given field using the fillUsing method:

Text::make('Name', 'name')
    ->fillUsing(function ($request, $model, $attribute, $requestAttribute) {
        $model->{$attribute} = Str::title($request->input($attribute));
    }),

# Field Panels

If your resource contains many fields, your resource "detail" page can become crowded. For that reason, you may choose to break up groups of fields into their own "panels":

Field Panel Example

You may accomplish this by creating a new Panel instance within the fields method of a resource. Each panel requires a name and an array of fields that belong to that panel:

use Laravel\Nova\Panel;

/**
 * Get the fields displayed by the resource.
 *
 * @param  \Laravel\Nova\Http\Requests\NovaRequest  $request
 * @return array
 */
public function fields(NovaRequest $request)
{
    return [
        ID::make()->sortable(),

        new Panel('Address Information', $this->addressFields()),
    ];
}

/**
 * Get the address fields for the resource.
 *
 * @return array
 */
protected function addressFields()
{
    return [
        Text::make('Address', 'address_line_1')->hideFromIndex(),
        Text::make('Address Line 2')->hideFromIndex(),
        Text::make('City')->hideFromIndex(),
        Text::make('State')->hideFromIndex(),
        Text::make('Postal Code')->hideFromIndex(),
        Country::make('Country')->hideFromIndex(),
    ];
}

You may limit the amount of fields shown in a panel by using the limit method:

(new Panel('Profile', [
    Text::make('Full Name'),
    Date::make('Date of Birth'),
    Text::make('Place of Birth'),
]))->limit(1),

Panels with a defined field limit will display a Show All Fields button in order to allow the user to view all of the defined fields when needed.

# Sortable Fields

When attaching a field to a resource, you may use the sortable method to indicate that the resource index may be sorted by the given field:

Text::make('Name', 'name_column')->sortable(),

# Field Types

Relationship Fields

This portion of the documentation only discusses non-relationship fields. To learn more about relationship fields, check out their documentation.

Nova ships with a variety of field types. So, let's explore all of the available types and their options:

# Avatar Field

The Avatar field extends the Image field and accepts the same options and configuration:

use Laravel\Nova\Fields\Avatar;

Avatar::make('Avatar'),

If a resource contains an Avatar field, that field will be displayed next to the resource's title when the resource is displayed in search results:

Avatar Search Results

You may use the squared method to display the image's thumbnail with squared edges. Additionally, you may use the rounded method to display its thumbnails with fully-rounded edges:

Avatar::make('Avatar')->squared(),

# Badge Field

The Badge field can be used to display the status of a Resource in the index and detail views:

use Laravel\Nova\Fields\Badge;

Badge::make('Status', function () {
    return User::statuses[$this->status];
}),

By default, the Badge field supports four variations: info, success, danger, and warning. You may define your possible field values and their associated badge types using the map method:

Badge::make('Status')->map([
    'draft' => 'danger',
    'published' => 'success',
]),

Alternatively, you may use the types method to completely replace the built-in badge types and their associated CSS classes. The CSS classes may be provided as a string or an array:

Badge::make('Status')->types([
    'draft' => 'font-medium text-gray-600',
    'published' => ['font-bold', 'text-green-600'],
]),

If you only wish to supplement the built-in badge types instead of overwriting all of them, you may use the addTypes method:

Badge::make('Status')->addTypes([
    'draft' => 'custom classes',
]),

Editing Badge Types

By default the Badge field is not shown on a resource's edit or update pages. If you wish to modify the underlying value represented by the Badge field on your edit forms, define another field in combination with the onlyOnForms field option.

If you'd like to display your badge with an associated icon, you can use the withIcons method to direct Nova to display an icon:

Badge::make('Status')->map([
    'draft' => 'danger',
    'published' => 'success',
])->withIcons(),

If you'd like to customize the icons used when display Badge fields you can use the icons method:

Badge::make('Status')->map([
    'draft' => 'danger',
    'published' => 'success',
])->icons([
    'danger' => 'exclamation-circle',
    'success' => 'check-circle',
]),

If you'd like to customize the label that is displayed you can use the label method:

Badge::make('Status')->map([
    'draft' => 'danger',
    'published' => 'success',
])->label(function ($value) {
    return __($value);
}),

You may provide a list of labels using the labels method:

Badge::make('Status')->map([
    'draft' => 'danger',
    'published' => 'success',
])->labels([
    'draft' => 'Draft',
    'published' => 'Published',
]),

# Boolean Field

The Boolean field may be used to represent a boolean / "tiny integer" column in your database. For example, assuming your database has a boolean column named active, you may attach a Boolean field to your resource like so:

use Laravel\Nova\Fields\Boolean;

Boolean::make('Active'),

# Customizing True / False Values

If you are using values other than true, false, 1, or 0 to represent "true" and "false", you may instruct Nova to use the custom values recognized by your application. To accomplish this, chain the trueValue and falseValue methods onto your field's definition:

Boolean::make('Active')
    ->trueValue('On')
    ->falseValue('Off'),

# Boolean Group Field

The BooleanGroup field may be used to group a set of Boolean checkboxes, which are then stored as JSON key-values in the database column they represent. You may create a BooleanGroup field by providing a set of keys and labels for each option:

use Laravel\Nova\Fields\BooleanGroup;

BooleanGroup::make('Permissions')->options([
    'create' => 'Create',
    'read' => 'Read',
    'update' => 'Update',
    'delete' => 'Delete',
]),

The user will be presented with a grouped set of checkboxes which, when saved, will be converted to JSON format:

{
  "create": true,
  "read": false,
  "update": false,
  "delete": false
}

Before using this field type, you should ensure that the underlying Eloquent attribute is configured to cast to an array (or equivalent) within your Eloquent model class:

protected $casts = [
    'permissions' => 'array'
];

Sometimes, you may wish to exclude values that are true or false from display to avoid cluttering the representation of the field. You may accomplish this by invoking the hideFalseValues or hideTrueValues methods on the field definition:

BooleanGroup::make('Permissions')->options([
    'create' => 'Create',
    'read' => 'Read',
    'update' => 'Update',
    'delete' => 'Delete',
])->hideFalseValues(),

BooleanGroup::make('Permissions')->options([
    'create' => 'Create',
    'read' => 'Read',
    'update' => 'Update',
    'delete' => 'Delete',
])->hideTrueValues(),

If the underlying field is empty, Nova will display "No Data". You may customize this text using the noValueText method:

BooleanGroup::make('Permissions')->options([
    'create' => 'Create',
    'read' => 'Read',
    'update' => 'Update',
    'delete' => 'Delete',
])->noValueText('No permissions selected.'),

# Code Field

The Code fields provides a beautiful code editor within your Nova administration panel. Generally, code fields should be attached to TEXT database columns:

use Laravel\Nova\Fields\Code;

Code::make('Snippet'),

You may also attach Code fields to JSON database columns. By default, the field will display the value as a JSON string. You may cast the underlying Eloquent attribute to array, collection, object, or json based on your application's needs:

use Laravel\Nova\Fields\Code;

Code::make('Options')->json(),

Code Fields On The Index

By default, Nova will never display a Code field on a resource index listing.

# Editing JSON

If you intend to use a given Code field instance to only edit JSON, you may chain the json method onto your field definition:

Code::make('Options')->json(),

Code Field JSON Validation

Nova does not automatically apply the json validation rule to Code fields. This rule must be manually specified during validation if you wish for it to be applied.

# Syntax Highlighting

You may customize the language syntax highlighting of the Code field using the language method:

Code::make('Snippet')->language('php'),

The Code field's currently supported languages are:

  • dockerfile
  • htmlmixed
  • javascript
  • markdown
  • nginx
  • php
  • ruby
  • sass
  • shell
  • sql
  • twig
  • vim
  • vue
  • xml
  • yaml-frontmatter
  • yaml

# Color Field

The Color field generate a color picker using the HTML5 color input element:

use Laravel\Nova\Fields\Color;

Color::make('Color', 'label_color'),

# Country Field

The Country field generates a Select field containing a list of the world's countries. The field will store the country's corresponding two-letter code:

use Laravel\Nova\Fields\Country;

Country::make('Country', 'country_code'),

# Currency Field

The Currency field generates a Number field that is automatically formatted using the brick/money PHP package. Nova will use USD as the default currency; however, this can be changed by modifying the nova.currency configuration value:

use Laravel\Nova\Fields\Currency;

Currency::make('Price'),

You may override the currency on a per-field basis using the currency method:

Currency::make('Price')->currency('EUR'),

Prerequisites

The ext-intl PHP extension is required to display formatted currency. Or, you may install the symfony/polyfill-intl-icu Composer package which offers support for the "en" locale.

You may use the min, max, and step methods to set their corresponding attributes on the generated input control:

Currency::make('price')->min(1)->max(1000)->step(0.01),

Currency Step Limitation

If you plan to customize the currency "step" amount using the step method, you should ensure you always call the step method after the currency, asMinorUnits, and asMajorUnits methods. Calling these methods after the step method will override the step method's behavior.

The field's locale will respect the value in your application's app.locale configuration value. You can override this behavior by providing a locale code to the locale method:

Currency::make('Price')->locale('fr'),

# Date Field

The Date field may be used to store a date value (without time). For more information about dates and timezones within Nova, check out the additional date / timezone documentation:

use Laravel\Nova\Fields\Date;

Date::make('Birthday'),

# DateTime Field

The DateTime field may be used to store a date-time value. For more information about dates and timezones within Nova, check out the additional date / timezone documentation:

use Laravel\Nova\Fields\DateTime;

DateTime::make('Updated At')->hideFromIndex(),

# Email Field

The Email field may be used to display a column with a mailto: link on the index and detail views:

use Laravel\Nova\Fields\Email;

Email::make(),

Email::make('Customer Email', 'customer_email'),

# File Field

To learn more about defining file fields and handling uploads, please refer to the comprehensive file field documentation.

use Laravel\Nova\Fields\File;

File::make('Attachment'),

# Gravatar Field

The Gravatar field does not correspond to any column in your application's database. Instead, it will display the "Gravatar" image of the model it is associated with.

By default, the Gravatar URL will be generated based on the value of the model's email column. However, if your user's email addresses are not stored in the email column, you may pass a custom column name to the field's make method:

use Laravel\Nova\Fields\Gravatar;

// Using the "email" column...
Gravatar::make(),

// Using the "email_address" column...
Gravatar::make('Avatar', 'email_address'),

You may use the squared method to display the image's thumbnail with squared edges. Additionally, you may use the rounded method to display the images with fully-rounded edges:

Gravatar::make('Avatar', 'email_address')->squared(),

# Heading Field

The Heading field does not correspond to any column in your application's database. It is used to display a banner across your forms and can function as a separator for long lists of fields:

Heading Field

use Laravel\Nova\Fields\Heading;

Heading::make('Meta'),

If you need to render HTML content within the Heading field, you may invoke the asHtml method when defining the field:

Heading::make('<p class="text-danger">* All fields are required.</p>')->asHtml(),

Headings & The Index Page

Heading fields are automatically hidden from the resource index page.

# Hidden Field

The Hidden field may be used to pass any value that doesn't need to be changed by the user but is required for saving the resource:

Hidden::make('Slug'),

Hidden::make('Slug')->default(Str::random(64)),

Combined with default values, Hidden fields are useful for passing things like related IDs to your forms:

Hidden::make('User', 'user_id')->default(function ($request) {
    return $request->user()->id;
}),

# ID Field

The ID field represents the primary key of your resource's database table. Typically, each Nova resource you define should contain an ID field. By default, the ID field assumes the underlying database column is named id; however, you may pass the column name as the second argument to the make method if necessary:

use Laravel\Nova\Fields\ID;

ID::make(),

ID::make('ID', 'id_column'),

If your application contains very large integer IDs, you may need to use the asBigInt method in order for the Nova client to correctly render the integer:

ID::make()->asBigInt(),

# Image Field

The Image field extends the File field and accepts the same options and configurations. The Image field, unlike the File field, will display a thumbnail preview of the underlying image when viewing the resource:

use Laravel\Nova\Fields\Image;

Image::make('Photo'),

By default, the Image field allows the user to download the linked file. To disable downloads, you may use the disableDownload method on the field definition:

Image::make('Photo')->disableDownload(),

You may use the squared method to display the image's thumbnail with squared edges. Additionally, you may use the rounded method to display its thumbnails with fully-rounded edges.

File Fields

To learn more about defining file fields and handling uploads, check out the comprehensive file field documentation.

# KeyValue Field

The KeyValue field provides a convenient interface to edit flat, key-value data stored inside JSON column types. For example, you might store profile information inside a JSON column type (opens new window) named meta:

use Laravel\Nova\Fields\KeyValue;

KeyValue::make('Meta')->rules('json'),

Given the field definition above, the following interface would be rendered by Nova:

Key/Value Field

# Customizing KeyValue Labels

You can customize the text values used in the component by calling the keyLabel, valueLabel, and actionText methods when defining the field. The actionText method customizes the "add row" button text:

KeyValue::make('Meta')
    ->keyLabel('Item')
    ->valueLabel('Label')
    ->actionText('Add Item'),

KeyValue Fields & The Index Page

By default, Nova will never display a KeyValue field on a resource index listing.

If you would like to disable the user's ability to edit the keys of the field, you may use the disableEditingKeys method to accomplish this. Disabling editing keys with the disableEditingKeys method will automatically disable adding rows as well:

KeyValue::make('Meta')->disableEditingKeys(),

You may also remove the user's ability to add new rows to the field by chaining the disableAddingRows method onto the field's definition:

KeyValue::make('Meta')->disableAddingRows(),

In addition, you may also wish to remove the user's ability to delete exisiting rows in the field. You may accomplish this by invoking the disableDeletingRows method when defining the field:

KeyValue::make('Meta')->disableDeletingRows(),

# Markdown Field

The Markdown field provides a WYSIWYG Markdown editor for its underlying Eloquent attribute. Typically, this field will correspond to a TEXT column in your database. The Markdown field will store the raw Markdown text within the associated database column:

use Laravel\Nova\Fields\Markdown;

Markdown::make('Biography'),

By default, Markdown fields will not display their content when viewing a resource's detail page. Instead, the content will be hidden behind a "Show Content" link that will reveal the field's content when clicked. You may specify that the Markdown field should always display its content by calling the alwaysShow method on the field itself:

Markdown::make('Biography')->alwaysShow(),

The Markdown field uses the league/commonmark package to parse Markdown content. By default, it uses a parsing strategy similar to GitHub Flavoured Markdown, which does not allow certain HTML within the Markdown content. However, you can change the parsing strategy using the preset method. Currently, the following built-in presets are default, commonmark, and zero:

Markdown::make('Biography')->preset('commonmark'),

Using the preset method, you may register and use custom preset implementations:

use Illuminate\Support\Str;
use Laravel\Nova\Fields\Markdown;
use Laravel\Nova\Fields\Markdown\MarkdownPreset;

Markdown::make('Biography')->preset('github', new class implements MarkdownPreset {
    /**
     * Convert the given content from markdown to HTML.
     *
     * @param  string  $content
     * @return string
     */
    public function convert(string $content)
    {
        return Str::of($content)->markdown([
            'html_input' => 'strip',
        ]);
    }
}),

# MultiSelect Field

The MultiSelect field provides a Select field that allows multiple selection options. This field pairs nicely with model attributes that are cast to array or equivalent:

use Laravel\Nova\Fields\MultiSelect;

MultiSelect::make('Sizes')->options([
    'S' => 'Small',
    'M' => 'Medium',
    'L' => 'Large',
]),

On the resource index and detail pages, the MultiSelect field's "key" value will be displayed. If you would like to display the label values instead, you may invoke the displayUsingLabels method when defining the field:

MultiSelect::make('Size')->options([
    'S' => 'Small',
    'M' => 'Medium',
    'L' => 'Large',
])->displayUsingLabels(),

You may also display multi-select options in groups by providing an array structure that contains keys and label / group pairs:

MultiSelect::make('Sizes')->options([
    'MS' => ['label' => 'Small', 'group' => "Men's Sizes"],
    'MM' => ['label' => 'Medium', 'group' => "Men's Sizes"],
    'WS' => ['label' => 'Small', 'group' => "Women's Sizes"],
    'WM' => ['label' => 'Medium', 'group' => "Women's Sizes"],
])->displayUsingLabels(),

# Number Field

The Number field provides an input control with a type attribute of number:

use Laravel\Nova\Fields\Number;

Number::make('price'),

You may use the min, max, and step methods to set the corresponding HTML attributes on the generated input control:

Number::make('price')->min(1)->max(1000)->step(0.01),

You may also allow arbitrary-precision decimal values:

Number::make('price')->min(1)->max(1000)->step('any'),

# Password Field

The Password field provides an input control with a type attribute of password:

use Laravel\Nova\Fields\Password;

Password::make('Password'),

The Password field will automatically preserve the password that is currently stored in the database if the incoming password field is empty. Therefore, a typical password field definition might look like the following:

Password::make('Password')
    ->onlyOnForms()
    ->creationRules('required', Rules\Password::defaults())
    ->updateRules('nullable', Rules\Password::defaults()),

# Password Confirmation Field

The PasswordConfirmation field provides an input that can be used for confirming another Password field. This field will only be shown on forms and will not attempt to hydrate an underlying attribute on the Eloquent model:

PasswordConfirmation::make('Password Confirmation'),

When using this field, you should define the appropriate validation rules on the corresponding Password field:

Password::make('Password')
    ->onlyOnForms()
    ->creationRules('required', Rules\Password::defaults(), 'confirmed')
    ->updateRules('nullable', Rules\Password::defaults(), 'confirmed'),

PasswordConfirmation::make('Password Confirmation'),

# Select Field

The Select field may be used to generate a drop-down select menu. The Select menu's options may be defined using the options method:

use Laravel\Nova\Fields\Select;

Select::make('Size')->options([
    'S' => 'Small',
    'M' => 'Medium',
    'L' => 'Large',
]),

On the resource index and detail pages, the Select field's "key" value will be displayed. If you would like to display the labels instead, you may use the displayUsingLabels method:

Select::make('Size')->options([
    'S' => 'Small',
    'M' => 'Medium',
    'L' => 'Large',
])->displayUsingLabels(),

You may also display Select options in groups by providing an array structure that contains keys and label / group pairs:

Select::make('Size')->options([
    'MS' => ['label' => 'Small', 'group' => 'Men Sizes'],
    'MM' => ['label' => 'Medium', 'group' => 'Men Sizes'],
    'WS' => ['label' => 'Small', 'group' => 'Women Sizes'],
    'WM' => ['label' => 'Medium', 'group' => 'Women Sizes'],
])->displayUsingLabels(),

If you need more control over the generation of the Select field's options, you may provide a closure to the options method:

Select::make('Size')->options(function () {
    return array_filter([
        Size::SMALL => Size::MAX_SIZE === SIZE_SMALL ? 'Small' : null,
        Size::MEDIUM => Size::MAX_SIZE === SIZE_MEDIUM ? 'Medium' : null,
        Size::LARGE => Size::MAX_SIZE === SIZE_LARGE ? 'Large' : null,
    ]);
}),

# Searchable Select Fields

At times it's convenient to be able to search or filter the list of options available in a Select field. You can enable this by invoking the searchable method on the field:

Select::make('Size')->searchable()->options([
    'S' => 'Small',
    'M' => 'Medium',
    'L' => 'Large',
])->displayUsingLabels(),

After marking a select field as searchable, Nova will display an input field which allows you to filter the list of options based on its label:

Searchable Select Fields

# Slug Field

Sometimes you may need to generate a unique, human-readable identifier based on the contents of another field, such as when generating a "slug" for a blog post title. You can automatically generate these "slugs" using the Slug field:

Slug::make('Slug')->from('Title'),

By default, the field will convert a string like 'My Blog Post' to a slug like 'my-blog-post'. If you would like the field to use underscores instead of dashes, you may use the separator method to define your own custom "separator":

Slug::make('Slug')->from('Title')->separator('_'),

# Sparkline Field

The Sparkline field may be used to display a small line chart on a resource's index or detail page. The data provided to a Sparkline may be provided via an array, a callable (which returns an array), or an instance of a Trend metric class:

// Using an array...
Sparkline::make('Post Views')->data([1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10]),

// Using a callable...
Sparkline::make('Post Views')->data(function () {
    return json_decode($this->views_data);
}),

# Using Trend Metrics

If the data needed by your Sparkline field requires complicated database queries to compute, you may wish to encapsulate the data retrieval within a trend metric which can then be provided to the Sparkline field:

Sparkline::make('Post Views')->data(new PostViewsOverTime($this->id)),

In the example above, we're providing the post's id to the metric's constructor. This value will become the resourceId property of the request that is available within the trend metric. For example, within the metric, we could access this post ID via $request->resourceId:

return $this->countByDays(
    $request,
    PostView::where('post_id', '=', $request->resourceId)
);

Default Ranges

When providing data to a Sparkline field via a trend metric, the Sparkline field will always use the first range defined in the ranges method of the metric.

# Customizing The Chart

If a bar chart better suits your data, you may invoke the asBarChart method when defining the field:

Sparkline::make('Post Views')
           ->data([1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10])
           ->asBarChart(),

By default, a Sparkline will appear on a resource's detail page. You can customize the dimensions of the chart using the height and width methods:

Sparkline::make('Post Views')
           ->data([1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10])
           ->height(200)
           ->width(600),

# Status Field

The Status field may be used to display a "progress state" column. Internally, Nova uses the Status field to indicate the current state (waiting, running, or finished) of queued actions. However, you are free to use this field for your own purposes as needed:

Status Field Example

The loadingWhen and failedWhen methods may be used to instruct the field which words indicate a "loading" state and which words indicate a "failed" state. In this example, we will indicate that database column values of waiting or running should display a "loading" indicator:

use Laravel\Nova\Fields\Status;

Status::make('Status')
    ->loadingWhen(['waiting', 'running'])
    ->failedWhen(['failed']),

# Stack Field

As your resource classes grow, you may find it useful to be able to group fields together to simplify your index and detail views. A Stack field allows you to display fields like BelongsTo, Text, and others in a vertical orientation:

Stack::make('Details', [
    Text::make('Name'),
    Text::make('Slug')->resolveUsing(function () {
        return Str::slug(optional($this->resource)->name);
    }),
]),

Stack Field

Stack fields are not shown on forms, and are only intended for stacking lines of text on the index and detail resource views.

# Line Fields

To gain more control over how the individual fields in a Stack are displayed, you may use the Line field, which provides methods for controlling the display of the line's text. Line fields offer the following presentational methods:

  • asHeading
  • asSubTitle
  • asSmall
  • asBase

Line presentational methods

In addition to the Line field's presentational methods, you may also pass any additional Tailwind classes to the field to customize the appearance of the Line:

Stack::make('Details', [
    Line::make('Title')->extraClasses('italic font-medium text-80'),
]),

# Passing Closures to Line Fields

In addition to passing BelongsTo, Text, and Line fields to the Stack field, you may also pass a closure. The result of the closure will automatically be converted to a Line instance:

Stack::make('Details', [
    Line::make('Name')->asHeading(),
    fn () => optional($this->resource)->position
]),

# Text Field

The Text field provides an input control with a type attribute of text:

use Laravel\Nova\Fields\Text;

Text::make('Name'),

Text fields may be further customized by setting any attribute on the field. This can be done by calling the withMeta method and providing an extraAttributes array containing key / value pairs of HTML attributes:

Text::make('Name')->withMeta([
    'extraAttributes' => [
        'placeholder' => 'David Hemphill',
    ],
]),

# Text Field Suggestions

To offer auto-complete suggestions when typing into the Text field, you may invoke the suggestions method when defining the field. The suggestions method should return an array of suggestions:

Text::make('Name')->required()
    ->suggestions([
        'David Hemphill',
        'Taylor Otwell',
        'James Brooks',
    ]),

Field Suggestions

To format a Text field as a link, you may invoke the asHtml method when defining the field:

Text::make('Twitter Profile', function () {
    $username = $this->twitterUsername;

    return "<a href='https://twitter.com/{$username}'>@{$username}</a>";
})->asHtml(),

# Copying Text Field Values to the Clipboard

Sometimes you may wish to copy the value of a field into the system clipboard for pasting elsewhere. You can enable this on the detail view for a resource by calling the copyable method on the Text field:

Text::make('Twitter Profile')->copyable(),

# Textarea Field

The Textarea field provides a textarea control:

use Laravel\Nova\Fields\Textarea;

Textarea::make('Biography'),

By default, Textarea fields will not display their content when viewing a resource's detail page. Instead, the contents of the field will be hidden behind a "Show Content" link, which will reveal the content when clicked. However, if you would like, you may specify that the Textarea field should always display its content by invoking the alwaysShow method on the field:

Textarea::make('Biography')->alwaysShow(),

You may specify the Textarea height by invoking the rows method on the field:

Textarea::make('Excerpt')->rows(3),

Textarea fields may be further customized by setting any attribute on the field. This can be done by calling the withMeta method and providing an extraAttributes array containing key / value pairs of HTML attributes:

Textarea::make('Excerpt')->withMeta(['extraAttributes' => [
    'placeholder' => 'Make it less than 50 characters']
]),

# Timezone Field

The Timezone field generates a Select field containing a list of the world's timezones:

use Laravel\Nova\Fields\Timezone;

Timezone::make('Timezone'),

# Trix Field

The Trix field provides a Trix editor (opens new window) for its associated field. Typically, this field will correspond to a TEXT column in your database. The Trix field will store its corresponding HTML within the associated database column:

use Laravel\Nova\Fields\Trix;

Trix::make('Biography'),

By default, Trix fields will not display their content when viewing a resource on its detail page. Instead, the content will be hidden behind a "Show Content" link, which will reveal the field's content when clicked. If you would like, you may specify that the Trix field should always display its content by invoking the alwaysShow method when defining the field:

Trix::make('Biography')->alwaysShow(),

# Trix File Uploads

If you would like to allow users to drag-and-drop photos into the Trix field, you may chain the withFiles method onto the field's definition. When calling the withFiles method, you should pass the name of the filesystem disk (opens new window) that photos should be stored on:

use Laravel\Nova\Fields\Trix;

Trix::make('Biography')->withFiles('public'),

In addition, you should define two database tables to store pending and persisted Trix uploads. To do so, create a migration with the following table definitions:

Schema::create('nova_pending_trix_attachments', function (Blueprint $table) {
    $table->increments('id');
    $table->string('draft_id')->index();
    $table->string('attachment');
    $table->string('disk');
    $table->timestamps();
});

Schema::create('nova_trix_attachments', function (Blueprint $table) {
    $table->increments('id');
    $table->string('attachable_type');
    $table->unsignedInteger('attachable_id');
    $table->string('attachment');
    $table->string('disk');
    $table->string('url')->index();
    $table->timestamps();

    $table->index(['attachable_type', 'attachable_id']);
});

Finally, in your app/Console/Kernel.php file, you should register a daily job (opens new window) to prune any stale attachments from the pending attachments table and storage. For convenience, Laravel Nova provides the job implementation needed to accomplish this:

use Laravel\Nova\Trix\PruneStaleAttachments;

$schedule->call(new PruneStaleAttachments)->daily();

# UI-Avatar Field

The UiAvatar field does not correspond to any column in your application's database. Instead, this field will generate a simple avatar containing the user's initials. This field is powered by ui-avatars.com (opens new window).

By default, the UiAvatar image will be generated based on the value of the model's name column. However, if your user's names are not stored in the name column, you may pass a custom column name to the field's make method:

use Laravel\Nova\Fields\UiAvatar;

// Using the "name" column...
UiAvatar::make(),

// Using a custom column...
UiAvatar::make('Avatar', 'full_name'),

If necessary, you may invoke the resolveUsing method to specify a closure that should be invoked to determine the name that should be used to generate the avatar:

UiAvatar::make()->resolveUsing(function () {
    return implode(' ', explode('@', $this->email));
}),

You may use the squared method to display the image's thumbnail with squared edges. Additionally, you may use the rounded method to display the images with fully-rounded edges:

UiAvatar::make('Avatar', 'fullname')->squared(),

Additional options available when defining UiAvatar fields include:

Option Method Description
Font Size fontSize(0.4) Set a font size between 0.1 to 1.
Bold bold() Set font weight to bold.
Background Color backgroundColor('1D4ED7') Set the hex color for the image background.
Text Color color('FFFFFF') Set the hex color for the image text.

# URL Field

The URL field renders URLs as clickable links instead of plain text:

URL::make('GitHub URL'),

The URL field also supports customizing the generated link's text by invoking the displayUsing method when defining the field. The displayUsing method accepts a closure that should return the link's text:

URL::make('Receipt')
    ->displayUsing(fn () => "{optional($this->user)->name}'s receipt")

By providing a closure as the second argument to the URL field, you may use the field to render a link for a computed value that does not necessarily correspond to a column within the associated model's database table:

URL::make('Receipt', fn () => $this->receipt_url)

# Vapor File Field

The Vapor file field provides convenience and compatibility for uploading files when deploying applications to a serverless environment using Laravel Vapor (opens new window):

use Laravel\Nova\Fields\VaporFile;

VaporFile::make('Document'),

When uploading a file using a VaporFile field, Nova will first generate a signed storage URL on Amazon S3. Next, Nova will upload the file directly to temporary storage in the Amazon S3 bucket. When the resource is saved, Nova will move the file to permanent storage.

Vapor Storage

For more information on how file storage is handled for Vapor applications, please refer to the Laravel Vapor storage documentation (opens new window).

# Vapor Image Field

Vapor file fields provide convenience and compatibility for uploading image files when deploying applications in a serverless environment using Laravel Vapor (opens new window):

use Laravel\Nova\Fields\VaporImage;

VaporImage::make('Avatar'),

Vapor image files support many of the same methods available to Image fields.

File Fields

To learn more about defining file fields and handling uploads, check out the additional file field documentation.

# Validating Vapor Image / File Fields

In order to validate the size or other attributes of a Vapor file, you will need to inspect the file directly via the Storage facade:

use Illuminate\Support\Facades\Storage;

VaporFile::make('Document')
    ->rules('bail', 'required', function ($attribute, $value, $fail) use ($request) {
        if (Storage::size($request->input('vaporFile')[$attribute]['key']) > 1000000) {
            return $fail('The document size may not be greater than 1 MB');
        }
    }),

# Computed Fields

In addition to displaying fields that are directly associated with columns in your database, Nova allows you to create "computed fields". Computed fields may be used to display computed values that are not associated with a database column. Since they are not associated with a database column, computed fields may not be sortable. These fields may be created by passing a callable (instead of a column name) as the second argument to the field's make method:

Text::make('Name', function () {
    return $this->first_name.' '.$this->last_name;
}),

The model instance will be passed to the computed field callable, allowing you to access the model's properties while computing the field's value:

Text::make('Name', function ($model) {
    return $model->first_name.' '.$model->last_name;
}),

Model Attribute Access

As you may have noticed in the example above, you may also use $this to access the resource's underlying model attributes and relationships.

By default, Vue will escape the content of a computed field. If you need to render HTML content within the field, invoke the asHtml method when defining your field:

Text::make('Status', function () {
    return view('partials.status', [
        'isPassing' => $this->isPassing(),
    ])->render();
})->asHtml(),

# Customization

# Readonly Fields

There are times where you may want to allow the user to only create and update certain fields on a resource. You can mark fields as "read only" by invoking the readonly method on the field, which will disable the field's corresponding input. You may pass a boolean argument to the readonly method to dynamically control whether a field should be "read only":

Text::make('Email')->readonly(optional($this->resource)->trashed()),

You may also pass a closure to the readonly method, and the result of the closure will be used to determine if the field should be "read only". The closure will receive the current NovaRequest as its first argument:

Text::make('Email')->readonly(function ($request) {
    return ! $request->user()->isAdmin();
}),

If you only want to mark a field as "read only" when creating or attaching resources, you may use the isCreateOrAttachRequest and isUpdateOrUpdateAttachedRequest methods available via the NovaRequest instance, respectively:

Text::make('Email')->readonly(function ($request) {
    return $request->isUpdateOrUpdateAttachedRequest();
}),

# Required Fields

By default, Nova will use a red asterisk to indicate a field is required:

Required Fields

Nova does this by looking for the required rule inside the field's validation rules to determine if it should show the required state. For example, a field with the following definition would receive a "required" indicator:

Text::make('Email')->rules('required'),

When you have complex required validation requirements, you can manually mark the field as required by passing a boolean to the required method when defining the field. This will inform Nova that a "required" indicator should be shown in the UI:

Text::make('Email')->required(true),

In addition, you may also pass a closure to the required method to determine if the field should be marked as required. The closure will receive an instance of NovaRequest. The value returned by the closure will be used to determine if field is required:

use Illuminate\Validation\Rule;

Text::make('Email')->required(function ($request) {
    return $this->notify_via_email;
}),

required() Limitations

The required() method will only add a "required" indicator to the Nova UI. You must still define the related requirement rules() that should apply during validation.

# Nullable Fields

By default, Nova attempts to store all fields with a value, however, there are times where you may prefer that Nova store a null value in the corresponding database column when the field is empty. To accomplish this, you may invoke the nullable method on your field definition:

Text::make('Position')->nullable(),

You may also set which values should be interpreted as a null value using the nullValues method, which accepts an array or a closure as its only argument:

Text::make('Position')->nullable()->nullValues(['', '0', 'null']),

Text::make('Position')->nullable()->nullValues(function ($value) {
    return $value == '' || $value == 'null' || (int)$value === 0;
}),

# Field Help Text

If you would like to place "help" text beneath a field, you may invoke the help method when defining your field:

Text::make('Tax Rate')->help(
    'The tax rate to be applied to the sale'
),

If necessary, you may include HTML within your field's help text to further customize the help text:

Text::make('First Name')->help(
    '<a href="#">External Link</a>'
),

Text::make('Last Name')->help(
    view('partials.help-text', ['name' => $this->name])->render()
),

# Field Stacking

By default, Nova displays fields next to their labels on the create / update forms, however some fields like "Code", "Markdown", and "Trix" may benefit from the extra width that can be gained by placing the field under their corresponding labels. Fields can be stacked underneath their label using the stacked method:

Trix::make('Content')->stacked(),

# Field Text Alignment

You may change the text alignment of fields using the textAlign method:

Text::make('Phone Number')->textAlign('left'),

The following alignments are valid:

  • left
  • center
  • right

# Field Resolution / Formatting

The resolveUsing method allows you to customize how a field is formatted after it is retrieved from your database but before it is sent to the Nova front-end. This method accepts a callback which receives the raw value of the underlying database column:

Text::make('Name')->resolveUsing(function ($name) {
    return strtoupper($name);
}),

If you would like to customize how a field is formatted only when it is displayed on a resource's "index" or "detail" pages, you may use the displayUsing method. Like the resolveUsing method, this method accepts a single callback:

Text::make('Name')->displayUsing(function ($name) {
    return strtoupper($name);
}),

# Filterable Fields

The filterable method allows you to enable convenient, automatic filtering functionality for a given field on resources, relationships, and lenses. The Nova generated filter will automatically be made available via the resource filter menu on the resource's index:

DateTime::make('Created At')->filterable(),

Filterable fields

The filterable method also accepts a closure as an argument. This closure will receive the filter query, which you may then customize in order to filter the resource results to your liking:

Text::make('Email')->filterable(function ($request, $query, $value, $attribute) {
    $query->where($attribute, 'LIKE', "{$value}%");
}),

The generated filter will be a text filter, select filter, number range filter, or date range filter depending on the underlying field type that was marked as filterable.

# Dependent Fields

The dependsOn method allows you to specify that a field's configuration depends on one or more other field's values. The dependsOn method accepts an array of dependent field attributes and a closure that modifies the configuration of the current field instance.

Dependent fields allow advanced customization, such as toggling read-only mode, validation rules, and more based on the state of another field:

use Laravel\Nova\Fields\FormData;
use Laravel\Nova\Fields\Select;
use Laravel\Nova\Fields\Text;
use Laravel\Nova\Http\Requests\NovaRequest;

Select::make('Purchase Type', 'type')
    ->options([
        'personal' => 'Personal',
        'gift' => 'Gift',
    ]),

// Recipient field configuration is customized based on purchase type...
Text::make('Recipient')
    ->readonly()
    ->dependsOn(
        ['type'], 
        function (Text $field, NovaRequest $request, FormData $formData) {
            if ($formData->type === 'gift') {
                $field->readonly(false)->rules(['required', 'email']);
            }
        }
    ),

The following field types may depend on other fields:

  • BelongsTo
  • Boolean
  • BooleanGroup
  • Color
  • Code
  • Country
  • Currency
  • File
  • Heading
  • Hidden
  • Image
  • KeyValue
  • Markdown
  • Number
  • Password
  • PasswordConfirmation
  • Status
  • Textarea
  • Text
  • URL
  • VaporFile
  • VaporImage

The following field types may not be depended upon by other fields since they do not live-report their changes to Nova:

  • Code
  • File
  • Image
  • KeyValue
  • Status
  • Trix
  • VaporFile
  • VaporImage

# Toggling Field Visibility

One common use-case for dependent fields is toggling field visibility based on the value of another field. You can accomplish this using the hide and show methods:

use Laravel\Nova\Fields\BelongsTo;
use Laravel\Nova\Fields\Boolean;
use Laravel\Nova\Fields\FormData;
use Laravel\Nova\Http\Requests\NovaRequest;

Boolean::make('Anonymous Comment', 'anonymous')
    ->default(true),

BelongsTo::make('User')
    ->hide()
    ->rules('sometimes')
    ->dependsOn('anonymous', function (BelongsTo $field, NovaRequest $request, FormData $formData) {
        if ($formData->anonymous === false) {
            $field->show()->rules('required');
        }
    }),

# Accessing Request Resource IDs

When interacting with dependent fields, you may retrieve the current resource and related resource IDs via the resource method:

use Laravel\Nova\Fields\BelongsTo;
use Laravel\Nova\Fields\Currency;

BelongsTo::make(__('Books'), 'books', Book::class),

Currency::make('Price')
    ->dependsOn('books', function ($field, NovaRequest $request, $formData) {
        $bookId = (int) $formData->resource(Book::uriKey(), $formData->books);

        if ($bookId == 1) {
            $field->rules([
                'required', 'numeric', 'min:10', 'max:199'
            ])->help('Price starts from $10-$199');

            return;
        }

        $field->rules([
            'required', 'numeric', 'min:0', 'max:99'
        ])->help('Price starts from $0-$99');
    }),